Limescale is formed from calcium carbonate dissolved in the water in the form of electrically charged ions. When the state of the water changes (the temperature increases or the pressure decreases) then the water becomes supersaturated and the ions precipitate out. The precipitation needs to occur on a "nucleation center" – a start point – and this is provided by the surfaces of pipes and equipment. Limescale therefore forms as a hard solid mass on the surfaces.

Hydropath Technology uses an AC electrical signal to prevent the formation of limescale deposits on the surfaces of pipes and equipment. With Hydropath Technology, the electrical field manipulates the electrically charged ions and induces them to form clusters (loose collections of ions).

Then, when the water is heated, these clusters acts as nucleation centers and tiny crystals (5-50 microns) form in suspension in the water. These crystals are washed out of the system by the water flow and the surfaces of pipes and equipment remain clear and scale free.

The electric induction is performed by a special transducer connected to a ring of ferrites. Just as an electrical wire carries current from point A to B, the water inside the pipe acts as a conductor and carries the induced electric signal throughout the entire water system. The oscillating sine waves of the induced AC signal cause the positively and negatively-charged ions to form suspended clusters in the water, preventing them from attaching to rough surfaces. Testing shows that compared to other technologies, Hydropath Technology is many times more efficient and effective.

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